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Fossils are essentially the remains of various animals that lived thousands or countless years earlier. When these animals died, they were buried in layers as well as layers of planet. While their flesh would certainly rot away, the harder parts of their body, such as coverings, bones, etc, would certainly stay intact in between the layers of sediment. Currently, all those years later, those bones and coverings can still be located, undamaged, as those layers of sediment are again uncovered.